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Creators are not mere experts. Instead of deliberately practicing down an already existing path, they often create their own path for others to follow

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In his new book " Clearance Brand New Unisex Footlocker TROUSERS Casual trousers Jaggy TlX34
", psychologist Anders Ericsson and journalistRobert Pool distill an impressive body of research on"mastering almost any skill." Indeed, deliberate practice can help you master new skills. Deliberate practice involves a series of techniques designed to learn efficiently and purposefully. Thisinvolves goal setting, breaking down complex tasks into chunks, developing highly complex and sophisticated representations of possible scenarios, getting out of your comfort zone, and receiving constant feedback.

But as they note midway through their book-- andI believe--the techniques of deliberate practice are most applicable to "highly developed fields" such as chess, sports, and musical performance in which the rules of the domain are well established and passed on from generation to generation.The principles of deliberate practice do not work nearly as well for professions in which there is "little or no direct competition, such as gardening and other hobbies", and "many of the jobs in today's workplace-- business manager, teacher, electrician, engineer, consultant, and so on."

And may I also add:!

Deliberate practice is really important for fields such as chess and instrumental performance because they rely on consistently replicable behaviors that must be repeatedover and over again. But not all domains of human achievementrely on consistently replicable behaviors. For mostcreative domains, the goals and ways of achieving success are constantly changing, and consistently replicable behaviors are in factto success. While Kobe Bryantshowcasingthe same slam dunk and Tiger Woodsgetting a hole in one will reliably inducepublic applause,scientists can't keep publishing the same paper over and over again, and writers can't keep writing the same critically acclaimednovel over and over again and expect the same acclaim.

Artistsare under constant pressure to surpass what they and others have done before, and it is precisely this pressure that drives them toward ever increasing originality . Artistic products can lose their "shock value" quickly.How many times would Lady Gaga have to consistently wear her meat dress without people getting bored? If people applied the techniques of deliberate practice to create a meat dress and wear it for Halloween, would those individuals be lauded for theircreative genius? Probably not.

While creativity often draws on a deep knowledge base, creative products, by definition, are much more than expert products.This is because creativity must be original, meaningful, and surprising . Original in the sense that the creator isrewarded for, and going beyond the standard repertoire. Meaningfulin the sense that the creator must satisfy some utility function, or provide a new interpretation. This constantly raises the bar of what is considered useful, and puts immense pressure on creators to find new meanings. Finally, creative products must be surprising in that theoriginal and meaningful creative productmust be surprising not only tooneself, but to . Thisis exactly how the United States Patent Office evaluates new applications. Original and meaningful ideas that could have been created by any expert in the field are considered "obvious" and are therefore unpatentable. Creative products-- such as the discoveries of Galileo and Leeuwenhoek-- are surprising to, novices and experts alike.

Over the past 50 years or so, there have been many systematic studies of the career trajectories of creative people, the traits that predict creativity, and the life experiences of creative people. This wealth of research on creativity contradictsthe notion that deliberate practice is the sole-- or even the most important-- aspect of creativity. Below I will summarize 12of these findings.

I hope I have convinced you that creators are not mere experts. Creativity does drawon a deep knowledge base, and delibrate practice can certainly contribute to many aspects of creativity, but ultimately creativityinvolves much more than just deliberate practice. Creators are not necessarily the most efficient, but their messy minds and messy processesoften allow them to see things others have never seen, and to create new paths that future generations will deliberately practice. I have immense respect for Ericsson's body of work on deliberate practice, and do believe that deliberate practice can help you get better in virtually any skill. However,I alsobelieve that an accurate understanding of is important for how we recognize, nurture, value, and ultimately, reward it,across all sectors of society.

© 2016Scott Barry Kaufman, All Rights Reserved

Creativity is often blind.
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Nearly 800,000 federal employees were out of work without pay. In addition, more than a million other working employees had their paychecks delayed. On day five of the shutdown, Congress voted to give the furloughed government employees retroactive pay.

The planned rallies also come on the heels of one on Wednesday in which 2,500 teachers in Arizona -- who are demanding a 20 percent raise -- demonstrated at the state's capitol in Phoenix. Gov. Doug Ducey didn't directly address the teachers' demands, but noted that the state already gave teachers a 4.3 percent raise from 2016 to 2017.

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Alicia Priest, president of the Oklahoma Education Association, said the union had asked that teachers' pay be raised by $10,000 annually and that funding for education be boosted by $200 million over the next three years.

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In anticipation of the teacher walkout, many Oklahoma public school districts, including those in the largest districts of Oklahoma City and Tulsa, canceled classes for Monday.

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